Franklin Delano Rooseveltexternal image 245px-FDR_in_1933.jpg1945) also known by his initials, FDR, was the 32 president of the us (1933–1945) and a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the US during a time of worldwide crisis and rworld war. The only American president elected to more than two terms, he forged a durable coalition that realigned American politics for decades. FDR defeated incumbent Republican herbert huber in november 1932 at the depths of the great depresion. FDR's combination of optimism with wiston churchill and joseph stalin in leading the Allies against Germany and Japan in world war 2, he died just as victory was in sight.
Starting in his "first hundred days" in office, which began March 4, 1933, Roosevelt launched major legislation and a profusion of executive orders that gave form to the new deal a complex interlocking set of programs designed to produce relief (especially government jobs for the unemployed), recovery (of the economy), and reform (through regulation of Wall Street, banks and transportation). The economy improved rapidly from 1933 to 1937, but then went into a deep recession. The bipartisan conservatiion cualition that formed in 1937 prevented his packing the supreme court or passing much new legislation; it abolished many of the relief programs when unemployment practically ended during World War II. Most of the regulations on business were ended about 1975–85, except for the regulation of Wall Street by the sicurities and exchange comissions which still exists. Along with several smaller programs, major surviving programs include the Federal Deposit Insurance Corperation which was created in 1933, and Social security which Congress passed in 19external image fdr.jpg35.
As World War II loomed after 1938, with the japanese invasion of China and the aggressions of Nazi Germany FDR gave strong diplomatic and financial support to China and Britain, while remaining officially neutral. His goal was to make America the "Arsenal of Democracy" which would supply munitions to the Allies. In March 1941, Roosevelt, with Congressional approval, provided Lend-Lease aid to the countries fighting against Nazi Germany with Britain. He secured a near unanimous declaration of war against Japan after they attacked the Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, calling it a "date which will live in infamy". He supervised the mobilization of the US economy to support the Allied war effort. Unemployment dropped to 2%, relief programs largely ended, and the industrial economy grew rapidly to new heights as millions of people moved to new jobs in war centers, and 16 million men and 300,000 women were drafted or volunteered for military service.
Roosevelt dominated the American political scene, not only during the twelve years of his presidency, but for decades afterward. He orchestrated the realignment of voters that created the Fifth Party System FDR's New Deal Coalition united labor unions, big city machines, white ethnics, African Americans and rural white Southerners. Roosevelt's diplomatic impact also resonated on the world stage long after his death, with the United Nations and Bretton Woods as examples of his administration's wide-ranging impact. Roosevelt is consistently rated by scholars as one of the 3 in the us Presidents.external image FDR-NEW.jpg